Elements of the Reading Process: A Schematic Diagram

The following image presents the elements of the reading process as a flow chart that roughly identifies levels of reading processing. I ask you to imagine a reader holding a text within the hands. Whether or not any comprehension occurs begins at the fundamental first steps: is adequate attention being paid to the text? Does the reader have the language and the knowledge to adequately draw meaning from the text? It is a process of both top down and bottom up processing, in which the top down process brings background knowledge and prior experience to bear on the reading and the bottom up process involves decoding, defining new terminology, and making sense of sentences through a knowledge of a syntax. 

Elements of the reading process

The following diagram further represents how both top down and bottom up processes interplay in an interactive approach to reading instruction. 

Courtesy of Dr Neil Anderson, Brigham Young University

The Manipulated Image

When I look at a genre-picture, it ‘tells’ me something, even though I don’t believe (imagine) for a moment [what] I see in it really exist, or that there have really been people in that situation. But suppose I ask: ‘What does it tell me, then?’
— Philosophical Investigations, #522

The flower above did not exist in the state it appears in the photograph. Like many photos, it has been altered. Can I still not find beauty in it?

Passion for looking, not thinking

From "Ludwig Wittgenstein’s passion for looking, not thinking" by Ray Monk in the New Statesman on 25 August 2013.


"Thus, at the heart of Wittgenstein’s philosophy is what he calls “the understanding which consists in ‘seeing connections’ ”. Here “seeing” is meant not metaphorically, but literally. That is why, towards the end of the book, he devotes so much space to a discussion of the phenomenon of seeing ambiguous figures such as the duck-rabbit. When we “change the aspect” under which we look at the picture, seeing it now as a duck, now as a rabbit, what changes? Not the picture, for that stays the same. What changes is not any object but rather the way we look at it; we see it differently, just as we see a face differently when we look at it, first as an expression of happiness and then as an expression of pride."