Aguirre-Muñoz, Z., & Amabisca, A. A. (2010). Defining Opportunity to Learn for English Language Learners: Linguistic and Cultural Dimensions of ELLs’ Instructional Contexts. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 15(3), 259–278. doi:10.1080/10824669.2010.495691

Al Otaiba, S., & Pappamihiel, N. E. (2005). Guidelines for using volunteer literacy tutors to support reading instruction for English language learners. Teaching Exceptional Children, 37(6), 6-11.

Alyousef, H. S. (2006). Teaching Reading Comprehension to ESL/EFL Learners. Journal of Language and Learning, 5(1), 379–380.
Anderson, E. (2012). Race, culture, and educational opportunity. Theory and Research in Education, 10(2), 105–129. doi:10.1177/1477878512446540

Anderson, N. J. (2013). A curricular model for reading: the inclusion of extensive reading. TESOL Reporter, 46(1-2), 1–9.

Arizpe, E. (n.d.). Visual Journeys with Immigrant Readers: minority voices create words for wordless picturebooks, 1–5.

Au, K. (1979). Using the Experience-Text Relationship Method with Minority Children. The Reading Teacher, (March), 677–679.

Au, K. (1993). Literacy Instruction in Multicultural Settings. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovic College Publishers.

Au, K. (1998). Social constructivism and the school literacy learning of students of diverse backgrounds. Journal of Literacy Research, 30(2), 297–319. doi:10.1080/10862969809548000

Au, K. (2001). Culturally responsive instruction as a dimension of new literacies. Reading Online, 5(1), 1–11.

Au, K. (2002). Balanced Literacy Instruction: Addressing Issues of Equity. In C. M. Roller (Ed.), Comprehensive Reading Instruction Across the Grade Levels: A Collection of Papers from the Reading Research 2001 Conference (pp. 70–87). International Reading Association.

Au, K. (2005). Multicultural issues and literacy achievement. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Au, K. H.-P., & Mason, J. M. (1981). Social Organizational Factors in Learning to Read: The Balance of Rights Hypothesis. Reading Research Quarterly, 17(1), 115. doi:10.2307/747251

Au, K. H.-P., & Raphael, T. E. (2010). Using workshop approaches to support the literacy development of ELLs. In Best practices in ELL instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Executive Summary: Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

August, D., Shanahan, T., & Escamilla, K. (2009). English Language Learners: Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners - Report of the Natonal Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Journal of Literacy Research, 41, 432–452. doi:10.1080/10862960903340165

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2014a). English as an Additional Language or Dialect Teacher Resource EAL/D Learning Progression: Foundation to Year 10. Sydney.

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2014b). English as an Additional Language or Dialect Teacher Resource: Student Illustrations of the EAL / D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10.

Barnett, J., & Antenucci, R. (2009). Building connection in working with new arrival immigrant and refugee students. TESOL in Context, May.

Barrett, R. (2014, March 23). English language cuts at NSW schools “hurting students.” ABC News. Retrieved from

Bartlett, L., & Garcia, O. (2011). Additive schooling in subtractive times: bilingual education and dominican immigrant youth in the Heights (p. 304). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.

Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: language, literacy and cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow, McBride-Chang, C., & Cheung, H. (2010). Parent-child reading in English a second language: Effects on language and literacy development of Chinese kindergarterners. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(3), 284–301.

Brown-Jeffy, S., & Cooper, J. E. (2011). Toward a Conceptual Framework of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: An Overview of the Conceptual and Theoretical Literature. Teacher Education Quarterly, 38(1), 65–84.

Calderon, M., Slavin, R., & Sanchez, M. (2011). Effective Instruction for English Learners. The Future of Children / Center for the Future of Children, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 21(1), 103 – 127. Retrieved from

Callahan, R. M. (2005). Tracking and High School English Learners: Limiting Opportunity to Learn. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 305–328. doi:10.3102/00028312042002305

Canele, M. (1980). Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing. Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1–47.

Carlo, M. S., August, D., McLaughlin, B., Snow, C. E., Dressler, C., Lippman, D. N., … & White, C. E. (2004). Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English‐language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(2), 188-215.

Castillo, R. and J.-C. V. (2013). Situated learning for adults acquiring a second language. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 6(1), 20–36.

Chiu, M. M., Pong, S., Mori, I., & Chow, B. W.-Y. (2012). Immigrant students’ emotional and cognitive engagement at school: a multilevel analysis of students in 41 countries. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(11), 1409–25. doi:10.1007/s10964-012-9763-x

Coady, J. (1997). L2 vocabulary acquisition through extensive reading. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition: A Rationale for Pedagogy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Collier, V. (1995). Acquiring a second language for school. Directions in Language and Education. The National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, 1(4), 1–10. Retrieved from

Cook, H. G., White, P. A., Bird, B., & Castro, M. (2012). Focus on Language Learning Progressions (pp. 1–9). Madison, WI.
Curriculum Corporation. (1997). ESL Scales. Melbourne: Curriculum Press.

Curriculum Corporation. (1997). ESL Scales. Melbourne: Curriculum Press.

D’Amato, J. (1987). The belly of the beast: on cultural differences, castelike status, and the politics of school. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 18, 357 – 361.

D’warte, J. (2014). Exploring linguistic repertoires: multiple language use and multimodel literacy activities in five classrooms. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 37(1), 21–30.

De Schonewise, E. A., & Klingner, J. K. (2012). Linguistic and Cultural Issues in Developing Disciplinary Literacy for Adolescent English Language Learners. Topics in Language Disorders, 32(1), 51–68. doi:10.1097/TLD.0b013e3182474c33

Delpit, L. (1995). Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York: The New Press.

Department of Education Employment and Workplace Relations. (2014). English as a Second Language New Arrivals Program. Retrieved May 10, 2014, from

Dooley, K. (2008). New learning and English as an additional language in mainstream classes. In A. H. Healey (Ed.), Multiliteracies and expanding landscapes: New pedagogies for student diversity (pp. 102–125). Sydney: Oxford University Press.

Dornyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, Orientations, and Motivations in Language Learning: Advances in Theory, Research, and Applications. Language Learning, 53(S1), 3–32.

Drucker, M. J. (2009). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57(1), 22–29.

Dufficy, P. (2005). Designing learning for diverse classrooms. Newtown, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association.

Dulay, H., Burt, M., & Krashen, S. (1982). Language two. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, N. C. (1999). Cognitive approaches to SLA. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 19, 1–30.

Ellis, R. (1997). Second language acquisition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2005). Principles of Instructed Language Learning. System, 33(2), 209–224.

Ellis, R. (2008). A typology of written corrective feedback types. ELT Journal, 63(2), 97–107. doi:10.1093/elt/ccn023

Ellis, R. (2009a). Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 221–246. Retrieved from

Ellis, R. (2009b). The Differential Effects of Three Types of Task Planning on the Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy in L2 Oral Production. Applied Linguistics, 30(4), 474–509. doi:10.1093/applin/amp042

Ewing, R. (1994). What is a functional model of language? PEN, 1–6.

Facella, M. a., Rampino, K. M., & Shea, E. K. (2005). Effective Teaching Strategies for English Language Learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(1), 209–221. doi:10.1080/15235882.2005.10162832

Fairbairn, S. B., & Fox, J. (2009). Inclusive Achievement Testing for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Test Takers: Essential Considerations for Test Developers and Decision Makers. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 28(1), 10–24. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3992.2009.01133.x

Fitzgerald, C. M. (2009). Language and community: using service learning to reconfigure the multicultural classroom. Language and Education, 23(3), 217–231.

Fulton, J. M. (2006). Talking About Wordless Picture Books: A Tutor Strategy Supporting English Language Learners. Louisville, KY: National Center for Family Literacy.

Garcia, G. (2000). Lessons from research: what is the length of time it takes limited English proficient students to acquire English and succeed in an all-English classroom? Issue and Brief No. 5. Washington D.C. Retrieved from

Gass, S. M. (1997). Input, interaction, and the second language learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (2008). Second language acquisition: an introductory course (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Gebhard, M. (2002). Fast Capitalism, School Reform and Second Language Literacy Practices. Canadian Modern Language Review, 59(1), 15 – 52.

Gebhard, M. (2005). School Reform, Hybrid Discourses, and Second Language Literacies. TESOL Quarterly, 39(2), 187 – 210. doi:10.2307/3588308

Gebhard, M., Demers, J., & Castillo-Rosenthal, Z. (2008). Teachers as critical text analysts: L2 literacies and teachers’ work in the context of high-stakes school reform. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17(4), 274–291. doi:10.1016/j.jslw.2008.05.001

Gebhard, M., & Harman, R. (2011). Reconsidering genre theory in K-12 schools: A response to school reforms in the United States. Journal of Second Language Writing, 20(1), 45–55. doi:10.1016/j.jslw.2010.12.007

Gebhard, M., Harman, R., & Seger, W. (2007). Reclaiming Recess: Learning the Language of Persuasion. Language Arts, 84(5), 419–430.

Gee, J. (1996). Social linguistics and literacies: ideology in discourses (2nd ed.). London: The Falmer Press

Giambo, D. A., & McKinney, J. D. (2004). The Effects of a Phonological Awareness Intervention on the Oral English Proficiency of Spanish-Speaking Kindergarten Children. TESOL Quarterly, 38(1), 95–117. doi:10.2307/3588260

Gibbons, P. (1993). Learning to learn in a second language. Heinemann.

Gibbons, P. (1998). Classroom Talk and the Learning of New Registers in a Second Language. Language and Education, 12(2), 99–118. doi:10.1080/09500789808666742

Gibbons, P. (2002). Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning: teaching second language learners in the mainstream classroom. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Gibbons, P. (2003). Mediating Language Learning: Teacher Interactions with ESL Students in a Content-Based Classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 37(2), 247–273.

Gibbons, P. (2006). Bridging discourses in the ESL classroom: Students, Teachers and Researchers. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30(2), 262–263.

Gibbons, P. (2008). “It Was Taught Good and I Learned a Lot”: Intellectual Practices and ESL Learners in the Middle Years. The Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 31(2).

Gibbons, P. (2009). English learners, academic literacy, and thinking: learning in the challenge zone. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Gibson, J. J. (1977). The theory of affordances. In R. Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving, acting, and knowing: Toward an ecological psychology (pp. 67 – 82). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Miflin.

Hammond, J. (2006). High challenge, high support: Integrating language and content instruction for diverse learners in an English literature classroom. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5(4), 269–283. doi:10.1016/j.jeap.2006.08.006

Hammond, J. & Miller, J. (Eds.) (2015). Classrooms of possibility: supporting at-risk EAL students. Newtown, NSW: PETAA

Haneda, M. (2006). Becoming Literate in a Second Language: Connecting Home, Community, and School Literacy Practices. Theory Into Practice, 45(4), 337–345. doi:10.1207/s15430421tip4504_7

Hertzberg, M. (2012). Teaching English language learners in mainstream classes. Newtown, NSW: PETAA.

Jacob, E., & Jordan, C. (1993). Understanding minority education: Framing the issues. In E. Jacob & C. Jordan (Eds.), Minority education: Anthropological perspectives. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Johnson, K. E. (2006). The sociocultural turn and its challenges for second language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 235–257.

Krashen, S. D. (1983). Principles and practices in second language acquisition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Kugler, Eileen Gale ; Price, O. A. (2009). Helping Immigrant and Refugee Students Succeed: It’s Not Just What Happens in the Classroom. Center for Health and Health Care in Schools.

Labov, W. (1974). The art of sounding and signifying. In W. Gage (Ed.), Language in its social setting (pp. 84 – 116). Washington D.C.: Anthropological Society of Washington.

Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2000). Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. In Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning (pp. 197–221). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lee, C. (2008). Cultural modelling as opportunity to learn: making problem solving explicit in culturally robust classrooms and implications for assessment. In P. Moss, D. Pullin, J. P. Gee, E. Haertel, & L. J. Young (Eds.), Assessment, equity, and opportunity to learn (pp. 136–169). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lesaux, N. E. & Harris, J. R. (2015). Cultivating knowledge, building language: literacy instruction for English learners in elementary school. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Li, G., & Edwards, P. A. (Eds.). (2010). Best practices in ELL instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

Louie, B., & Sierschynski, J. (2015). Enhancing English Learners’ Language Development Using Wordless Picture Books. The Reading Teacher, 69(1), 103-111.

Lugo-Neris, M. J., Jackson, C. W., & Goldstein, H. (2010). Facilitating vocabulary acquisition of young English language learners. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41(July), 314–327. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2009/07-0082)

Lust, B. (2006). Child language: acquisition and growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

MacIntyre, P. D., Dornyei, Z., Clement, R., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualising willingness to communicate in a L2: a situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545–562.

Mackey, A., Gass, S., & McDonough, K. (2000). How do learners perceive interactional feedback? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 471–497. Retrieved from

McKay, P. (2005). Research into the assessment of school-age language learners. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 243–263. doi:10.1017/S0267190505000139

Meidl, T. (2009). Teachers’ dissonance with curriculum planning for linguistically and culturally diverse students. Pennsylvania State University.

Menken, K. (2013). Emergent bilingual students in secondary school: Along the academic language and literacy continuum. Language Teaching, 46(4), 438 – 476.

Nessel, D. D., & Dixon, C. N. (2008). Using the language experience approach with English language learners: Strategies for engaging students and developing literacy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

New Zealand Ministry of Education. (2008). English Language Learners Progressions. ESOL Online. Retrieved July 26, 2014, from

Nyiri, K. (2007). Context and Intention. In Philosophy of Technology-enhanced Learning Workshop. London: London Knowledge Lab.

Ogbu, J. (1987). Opportunity, structure, cultural boundaries and literacy. In J. Langer (Ed.), Language, literacy and culture: Issues of society and schooling. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Reeves, J. (2010). “Like everybody else”: Equalizing educational opportunity for English language learners. TESOL Quarterly Quarterly, 38(1), 43–66.

Rogoff, B. (1995). Observing sociocultural activity on three planes: participatory appropriation, guided participation, and apprenticeship. In J. Wertsch, P. Del Rio, & A. Alvarez (Eds.), Sociocultural studies of mind (pp. 139 – 164). Cambridge University Press.

Rueda, R., & Dembo, M. (1995). Motivational processes of learning: A comparative analysis of cognitive and sociocultural frameworks. In M. Maehr & P. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: culture, motivation and achievement (pp. 255 – 289). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Rueda, R., & Moll, L. C. (1994). A sociocultural perspective on motivation. In H. F. O’Neil Jr. & M. Drillings (Eds.), Motivation: Theory and research (pp. 117–137). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sani, A. M. (2011). Relating adolescents’ second language reading attitudes, self efficacy for reading, and reading ability in a non-supportive ESL setting. The Reading Matrix, 11(3), 243–254.

Savignon, S. (2007). Beyond communicative language teaching: What’s ahead? Journal of Pragmatics, 39(1), 207–220. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2006.09.004

Schmitt, N. (2008). Review article: Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 329–363. doi:10.1177/1362168808089921

Schumann, J. H. (1986). Research on the acculturation model for second language acquisition. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 7(5), 379–392.

Sherris, A. A. (2008). Integrated Content and Language Instruction. Centre for Applied Linguistics, September.

Shih, M. (1986). Content-based approaches to teaching academic writing. TESOL Quarterly, 20(4), 617–648.

Silverstein, M., Iverson, L., & Lozano, P. (2002). An English-Language Clinic-Based Literacy Program Is Effective for a Multilingual Population. Pediatrics, 109(5), 1–6. doi:10.1542/peds.109.5.e76

Skinner, E. N., & Hagood, M. C. (2008). Developing literate identities with English language learners through digital storytelling. The Reading Matrix, 8(2), 12–38.

South Australian Department of Education. (n.d.-a). English as a second language: middle years band. In South Australian Curriculum, Standards and Accountability Framework. Adelaide.

South Australian Department of Education. (n.d.-b). English as a second language: senior years band. In South Australian Curriculum, Standards and Accountability Framework (pp. 1–94).

Swanson, P. B., & Early, P. (2008). Digital Recordings and Assessment: An Alternative for Measuring Oral Proficiency. In A. Moeller, J. Theiler, & S. Betta (Eds.), CSCTFL Report (pp. 129–143). Eau Claire, WI: Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Retrieved from

Teaching English Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms: Focus on Writing. (2012). Sydney: Sydney Region Primary ESL Teachers’ Wiki. Retrieved from

Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: a usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2007). Shared intentionality. Developmental Science, 10(1), 121 – 125.

Vaughn, S., Martinez, L. R., Linan-Thompson, S., Reutebuch, C. K., Carlson, C. D., & Francis, D. J. (2009). Enhancing Social Studies Vocabulary and Comprehension for Seventh-Grade English Language Learners : Findings From Two Experimental Studies. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2(4), 297–324. doi:10.1080/19345740903167018

Watts-Taffe, S., & Truscott, D. M. (2000). Using what we know about language and literacy development for ESL students in the mainstream classroom. Language Arts, 77(3), 258–263.

Wardhaugh, R. (2002). An Introduction to Sociolingusitics (4th ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Yang, T. (2008). Factors Affecting EFL Teachers’ Use of Multiple Classroom Assessment Practices with Young Language Learners. English Teaching & Learning, 32(4), 85–123.