Some Rough Notes on Certain Elements Contributing to Literacy Learning


The following are types of focal learning areas:

  1. Word study (including early language and beginning vocabulary development)
  2. Vocabulary development
  3. Early composition (creating sentences, usually based on some stimulus)
  4. Reading practice (for fluency with some comprehension)
  5. Reading practice to deploy strategies
  6. Close comprehensive reading (and responding)
  7. Reading to respond (focus on text type)
  8. Writing workshops (with portfolio development and mini-lessons)
  9. Writing for a purpose (to real audiences)
  10. Facilitating oral language
  11. Emphasising oral language in learning
  12. Developing skills in specific spoken discourses, genres, contexts and/or registers
  13. Academic/disciplinary literacies
  14. Anchored learning (instruction)
  15. Functional literacy


There following skills areas are developed within and across the above sequences:

  • language skills;
  • literacy skills;
  • knowledge development;
  • learning skills (how do I learn? how/why do I remember something? how do I defer gratification?, how do I maintain focus?);
  • social and emotional qualities (including trust, confidence and self-concept);
  • schemas, routines, habits and practices;
  • independence and resilience;
  • interests, identities, expertise and careers;
  • acumen and awareness of talents/specialisation
  • deliberation, familiarity and situated cognition (how to attack and solve problems in context? how do I deploy this strategy in context? and to what effect?);
  • critical thinking; and
  • cultural and political awareness


We must be mindful of:

  • time allocated to learning;
  • the richness of the learning spaces/resources;
  • the organisation of learning; 
  • the appropriateness and challenging nature of the content;
  • the available of material conditions and opportunities to practice; and
  • issue affecting trust, power and access.